USERS ADVISORY COUNCIL (CUAC) 2001 MEETING MINUTES
April 17-18, 2001
Washington, D. C.
Janet Collins, Western Washington University (WAML)
Mike Furlough, University of Virginia (MAGERT)
Donna Koepp, University of Kansas (GODORT)
Clara McLeod, Washington University (GIS)
Bruce Obenhaus, Virginia Tech (SLA G&M)
Celia Pratt, University of North Carolina (SLA G&M) 0
Dan Seldin, Indiana University (NACIS)
Richard Spohn, University of Cincinnati (GIS)
Paul Stout, Ball State University (NACIS)
Christopher JJ Thiry, Colorado School of Mines (WAML)
Mark Thomas, Duke University (MAGERT)
Robin Haun-Mohamed (GPO)
Tad Downing (GPO)
Rea Mueller (USGS)
John Hebert (LC G&M)
Jim Lusby (NIMA)
Tim Trainor (Census)
Roger Payne (US BGN)
Nancy Haack (NPS)
Christine Clarke (NRCS)
Doug Vandegraft (F&WS)
Vi Moorhead (LC Cataloging)
Chip Woodward (LC Cataloging)
Wilford Daniels (LC Cataloging)
Patricia Banks (NOAA)
Sharon Kemp (NOAA)
and Free Access Issues- Mark Thomas
- CRADAS and
Free Access- Janet Collins
and Public Access- Donna Koepp
- GIS in
Libraries - Mike Furlough
Printing Office- Robin Huan-Mohamed, Tad Downing
Survey- Rea Mueller
- Library of
Congress Geography and Map Division- John Hebert
Imagery and Mapping Agency- Jim Lusby
Bureau- Tim Trainor
- Board of
Geographic Names- Roger Payne
Park Service- Nancy Haack
Resources Conservation Services- Christine Clarke
- Fish and
Wildlife Service- Doug Vandegraft
AND FREE ACCESS ISSUES
The United States
has a long tradition of government-funded basic research to provide the
infrastructure needed for an informed citizenry and to provide the building
blocks for academic and private research. It also has a tradition of
copyright-free government publications, based on the belief that the
property rights of government information resides with the people as a
whole. This is something that sets this country apart from
others—it’s a tradition of which we should be proud and should
try to preserve.
Public money has paid for the collection and compilation of the
information. A corollary to this is the implication that government
agencies have the obligation to provide some sort of results or output to
the public who funded it: giving the deliverables to the sponsors, as it
were. Dissemination is just the final step; free access should be funded at
this point as an integral portion of the government research process.
concept of depository libraries—the idea that government information
should be deposited in repositories for the use of the public—goes
back to the early 19th century. By the late 1850s, the feature
of congressional designation of depositories in districts or states had
developed. The Printing Act of 1895 moved the Superintendent of Documents
to the Government Printing Office (GPO) and ushered in the modern era of
depositories. Title 44, chapters 19 and 13, of the United States Code
requires agencies to provide material to the public through the Federal
Depository Library Program (FDLP).
to the Agency
Freely available data, whether tangible products distributed through
libraries or material provided free on the Internet, is good publicity for
the agency. In many cases, such as with topographic maps or nautical
charts, the library acts as a "showroom," since librarians
frequently tell patrons how to purchase the products for themselves. Best
selling commercial books are held by public libraries, often in multiple
volumes, but this doesn’t prevent them from becoming best sellers.
For convenience or to have more control, many users always prefer to
acquire material directly for themselves.
cases, such as with many electronic products, where the a government agency
disseminates material for free, the open access model has benefits for the
agency. Besides advertising specific products, it "advertises"
the agency; good publicity can never hurt when it’s time for funding
to be renewed. Familiarizing users with the products and services of the
agency will build and expand the user base for that agency’s services
Census Bureau has sold, for instance, CDs of 1990 Census data. Nonetheless,
these were also available for free to libraries through the Federal
Depository Library Program (FDLP). They eventually, with the advent of the
World Wide Web, put this material on the Internet. This is a good model for
the reasons listed above, benefiting the general public and the issuing
agency alike, we urge the federal producers of maps and geospatial data to
maintain this nation’s longstanding tradition of free access to
American Library Association (ALA).
Government Documents Round Table (GODORT). Principles on Government
Commission on Library and Information Science (NCLIS).NCLIS Principles
of Public Information
Depository Library Program
ALA GODORT.The Federal depository Library Program (fact sheet) http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/GODORT/9704fact.html
ALA Washington Office.
Federal Depository Library Program Fact Sheet
United States Code. Title 44.
States Government Printing Office (GPO)
Snapshots of the Federal Depository Library Program (historical
AND FREE ACCESS
- A trend with
- How do you
see it changing what you do within your agency?
- What are the
potential impacts to the depository program?
- Will we
still have free access to the information through the depository program?
For how long? In what format?
- Will the
information be copyrighted? Potential costs?
- How do we
respond to the public that questions taxpayer-based information being
- Can we work
together to assure free access to government information, ongoing
participation in the depository program, and benefit everyone?
FOR CARTOGRAPHIC AND SPATIAL ELECTRONIC DATA
- What is your
agency doing to archive your products? Will these archives be public
and freely available?
- Are snap
shots at regular intervals being taken of products that are
continually being updated in an electronic environment?
- If some of
your agencies products are being produced cooperatively—either
with another federal agency or with a commercial sector partner
(CRADA) are these products being archived in a way that they will
continue to be freely accessible to the public?
- Have you
considered, when negotiating a CRADA, fitting into the agreement
enough copies of your product to fulfill the need of the GPO
depository library program?
Cartographic/GIS library community is an excellent way to advertise
the availability of your products and how they can be used. Is there
any way you can think of that we might assist you in meeting your
goals or mission?
- Not just the
- State and
local government users
- Raw data
in converting data to information
in interpretation and use of data
- No single
model works for all libraries
GIS support may come from other units, but frequently doesn't
clearinghouses are not as well positioned to support public data users
libraries: often home-grown or self-trained
public: largely novices
researchers: increasingly more novices
- A struggle:
- How to best
catalog resources (MARC compliance)?
- How to best
make use of available FGDC style metadata?
- Does the
"clearinghouse" model work for all concerned?
- Who is
getting left out?
the production and distribution of metadata in standard forms
- Consider the
distribution of metadata in easier to use forms for general public
- Concern over
industry-driven standards in format and software
- Support the
development of open-standards
should belong to the public wherever it is possible
- Spatial data
tends to have wider uses than that for which it was orginally created.
- We cannot
always envision how data products will/should be used.
- Do not
mistake delivery of geographic information for delivery of spatial
is not the same as spatial analysis.
- GIS software
industry is focused on government and business, not on education and
a summary of the responses CUAC received from the questions asked last year
to us by Robin Haun-Mohamed. The "X" signifies the number of
times the response was given. In general, the responses came from academic
libraries with large map collections.
- Lack of
- High costs
plotters or oversized printers.
- Purchase of,
maintenance of, and lack of expertise in computer software and
of, or lack thereof, data.
in finding many maps on the web.
- What is the
impact on libraries when mapping is online?
- Can't support
paper printing because of cost. X13
- Need for
better equipment and software. X6
expertise in software and hardware. X4
of data and software ties up computers. X4
of maps? X3
stability? Will we be able to ready CD-ROMs 20 years from now? X2
to find on-line. X2
- Library may
be by-passed. X2
less time to file and maintenance. X2
map use in general.
- Lose of
ability to become aware of new maps.
- Easier to
keep track of.
- Finding on-line
often takes more time than finding in paper.
expectations of what is available on-line.
patrons only interested in digital products and forget/don’t
know about printed maps.
- Patrons not
skilled in using them.
- Cannot use.
of lesser means cannot keep up.
collection from ownership to access.
- Older items
(15’ topos) not on-line.
problem. Getting worse.
do not have acid-free paper or permanent ink.
- How do we use
online spatial/cartographic data?
patron to web site—organize them on our web site. X4
- Depends on
- Download as
- Used to
supplement collection. X2
- Many thesis
have maps in them. X2
- Not very
useful to most patrons.
- Do catalog
relevant web sites.
- Used at all
- Public want
very specialized data.
want Arc-formatted data.
- Make maps
to display topical information.
- Do we
download things, save things, archive them, or do we go back to the
original source material each time?
- Go to
source each time, but problems with broken links. X6
- Save if
items cover own region. X4
- Depends. X2
sometimes if patrons use it multiple times. X2
especially if large file or popular site.
- Do we handle
electronic map needs in the library or do we send our users someplace
- Do not send
elsewhere because we have expertise. X10
- Both. X6
- Help when
possible, but limited expertise. X6
- Send to GIS
- Let them
check out CDs. X3
- They must
go elsewhere because there is no place to print. X3
have GIS lab on campus.
want to take data away.
- Do we use
the airport charts, obstruction charts, approach charts, etc.?
- Little use.
- Some use.
received any in years.
- Use VFR
- What will be
the impact if the USGS Open File Reports go online only?
consistent format. X6
- Question of
to locate—not all in one place. X5
- Better than
- Both fiche
and digital difficult to print large maps. X3
comprehensive index of online OFRs (in any format). X3
- More use?
- Save space.
less time to file and maintenance. X2
- Need for
what's in OFRs. Criteria has changed.
difficulty to use as fiche.
afford to start if charge.
Robin announced that this would probably be her last CUAC meeting, since
there had been reorganization and reassignments at GPO, and that with the
next meeting Tad Downing would officially take her place. At this meeting
Tad would be learning about CUAC and commenting where he could.
Robin spoke to us last, GPO has experienced many changes. It was a very
chaotic summer due to proposed budget cuts by Congress. There was an
initial proposed cut by the House of 61%. The library community rallied
with a letter campaign, testifying to Congress, newspaper articles, and in
the end the GPO’s budget was cut by about 6%. Throughout the summer,
however, in this environment of uncertainty, the Library Program Service
moved very quickly on some initiatives that they were committed to
Depository Library Council meeting in October 2000, GPO presented a
Superintendent of Documents directive (SOD 71) which sets policy for
dissemination and distribution of materials in the Federal Depository
Library Program (FDLP). Cartographic materials and their use were taken
into consideration when these criteria were decided upon. A list of essential
titles, which will continue to be published in paper, has also been
developed. (See Administrative Notes January 15, 2001).
have been many personnel changes at GPO. Sheila McGarr resigned in
September to become the Director of the National Education Library. Robin
has become the Chief of Depository Services. Tad is now wearing two hats:
Acting Chief of Depository Administration Branch and Head of Cataloging
Department. Coleen Davis is now heading the Depository Distribution Branch,
and Vicki Barber is on special detail to the Superintendent of
with the move to an electronic transition, LPS continues to distribute a
number of physical products. The numbers, however, continue to decrease. In
FY2000 there were 13,660 paper titles distributed or 22.3% of all FDLP
titles. This number includes USGS maps. Microfiche distribution was 14,572
titles, or 23.8% of total distribution. Online titles on GPO Access account
for 11,715 titles or 19.2% distributed. Online titles from other agency
websites account for 20,591 titles or 33.7% of FDLP titles distributed. The
CD-ROM or DVD titles totaled 617 or just 1% of the total.
total number of USGS map sheets distributed in FY2000 was 357,907. In 1999
it was 381,282. A title count was not available.
a new FDLP administrative page which is now called the FDLP Desktop.
This contains cataloging and locator tools, as well as other useful tools
for libraries. For example, Depository Shipping Lists are now available
here in PDF format. These tools can be used for claiming as well. The Joint
Operation Graphics (1501s) that Jim Lusby promised us last year will need
to be surveyed with depository libraries to determine distribution.
-Oregon GAP Analysis.
-Research Maps (R-Map) from HUD in CD-ROM.
-Digital Atlas of Central and South America.
-National Land Cover Data Base (NLCDB) is online only but has been
cataloged by GPO.
-Tide Tables temporarily dropped off the distribution but are now back.
2001 will come out shortly and 2002 will come as scheduled.
-National Atlas is coming as depository when pages can be sent. Some sheets
are cooperatively done and are exempt from FDLP.
-Tract maps from Census 2000 will be coming on CD and DVDs when they come
out but right now they are ‘one offs'.
The 2001 Recommended Specifications for Public Access Workstations in
Federal Depository Libraries have been issued. Special specs for
cartographic data use are noted. During inspections and self-studies, GPO
is looking for written policies concerning computers for use with FDLP
material. Computer specifications are checked, as well as any impediments
to access to computer or online information. GPO is now taking comments
regarding computer specifications that will go into effect in the fall of
2002. One noteworthy change is that libraries must provide a DVD player.
FDLP housing sites need to be in compliance with all requirements of the
FDLP Instruction and Guidelines for Depository Libraries. A decal on the
door of selected housing sites is a requirement, as well as a written
agreement for the selective housing site on file at GPO.
asked for our ideas and participation in the October 2001 Depository
Federal Library conference. She would like us to present a session on
Electronic transition not only in FDLP, but overall libraries. Transition
to electronic has driven many changes within Library Program Service and
this effects everyone. GPO is evaluating, validating, acquiring and
cataloging electronic resources. Catalogers evaluate web sites, point to
URLs and use PURLs. The links sometimes take the user to the exact page on
the Web site that they think is appropriate: a place that is in accordance
with the cataloging description. The Map catalogers are doing more of this
than anyone else on the cataloging staff.
STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Mueller presented for the USGS. Currently, there are 55,000+ 7.5" quads
that cover the entire country. The topo maps are a "national
treasure". It took approximately 33 million hours to produce the topos
and the cost would be $1.6 billion at today's prices to re-do the set from
next 10 years USGS, together with its partners, will implement a revision
strategy that provides "truly current information" to customers
in a cost effective way. This effort considers political, social, economic
policy and technological challenges. Partners and stakeholders are part of
the process. Implementation begins in 2002 with a vision that by the year
2010, this arrangement "will provide the nation with current,
accurate, and nationally consistent basic spatial data, including digital
data and derived topographic maps". The resulting proposal from this
study, The National Map, is available on the web at http://nationalmap.usgs.gov. Comments are
being requested by June 29, 2001.
Information will be delivered in a digital world. Geospatial data can be
accessed at US Geodata online and electronic publications will
include search and access tools. The Web URL is http://www.usgs.gov. Phone information
are at 1-888-ASK-USGS. SDTs, DLGs, DEMs and land use/land cover data are
available at no charge at http://edc.usgs.gov/doc/edchrome/ndcdb/ndcbd.html. Web search and
access tools include National Water Stream Gauging Network, National
Biological Information Infrastructure, place based scientific projects, and
National Seismic Data Network. There is a new website for current midwest
will be going away and replaced by Earth Explorer. Over 60 databases will
be represented. MAC users will need to use GLIS for the present.
Atlas will continue to be published mainly in electronic format. Some
printed sheets will still be published. The updated "General
Reference" sheet will be out on depository soon at larger scale and
updated from the 1973 edition.
new products include the Pennsylvania Shaded Relief map in experimental
editions, DDS-62A "Global GIS Database: Digital Atlas of Central and
South America", the online version of the National Land Cover Dataset
and CD-ROM of " Status and Trends publications of the Department of
goal is to be "seamless". Design goals include web accessible,
best available data, most current data, GIS application ready,
multi-resolution and full coverage. Base map layers include Elevation
(NED), Land Cover (NLCD), Hydrography (NHD), Orthoimagery (DOQ, TM), and
Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) along with Geographic Names (GNIS) and
trends include DLG's coming out on DVD. Web mapping will not be under
copyright. CRADA's will continue (e.g. Laser Scan, Microsoft, ESRI, Chicago
Map Corp, Earth Data, etc.).
maps are available on demand via Map Machines at several sites including
REI stores, USGS Menlo Park, USGS Reston, etc. There will be more sites in
the future. Users can center on a place and buy what they want (parts of
many topos) at a cost usually less than the cost of purchasing all the
topos ($6.00 as opposed to $4.00 for a standard topo sheet). These are
color laminate maps. The machines were created through a partnership
between USGS and National Geographic, which acquired Wildflower
Productions. Users may soon be able to annotate on the map where they want
OF CONGRESS GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION
Three years ago EDR Sanborn and the Library of Congress Geography and Map
Division signed a contract to scan all the Sanborn fire insurance maps held
by the Library of Congress and EDR Sanborn. The contract has been broken
because EDR Sanborn wanted new copyrights for the scanned images. The LC
Geography and Map Division wants to keep the maps produced before 1923 in
the public domain. Bell and Howell is placing scans of their black and
white microfilm on the web. LC G&M is talking with them about a
contract to create color scans on the web. Pascagoula, Mississippi has been
done as a prototype. There have been a few Sanborn maps in the LC G&M
scanning program. The division is looking for organizations to help fund
the Sanborn scanning that do not have a commercial interest in the scanned
G&M scanning program is proceeding with maps that are in the
cartobibliographies created by the Division. These lists include: Panoramic
Maps, Civil War, Revolutionary War, and John Hebert’s Luso Hispanic
Maps. The last cartobibliography contains over 1000 manuscript maps
produced between 1500 and 1900. Other areas to be scanned include Russian
Frontiers, Spanish Frontiers Parallel History, and Brazil. James
Billington, the Librarian of Congress, has an interest in scanning maps of
Italy and the Vatican, and Japan.
quality printouts of the LC G&M scans are available from Museum
Archives of Seattle. The Division has an overhead camera worth more than
$70,000 and a cradle worth about $25,000 in the Division to scan atlases.
Division is working to set up scanning agreements with outside
organizations. A letter of agreement has been approved by LC with the
Library of Virginia and the Virginia Historical Society to scan Civil War
maps in their collections. It is now being studied in Richmond. LC G&M
has begun discussions with Harvard for scanning maps of coastal areas in
time of the American Revolution from the American Neptune. There may be
some possibility of cooperation with WAML.
The LC Geography and Map Division and the National Imagery and Mapping
Agency (NIMA) are both using Endeavor Voyager for their Integrated Library
System. Because of this, they have begun cooperating on a project for the
Division to create sheet level records for the set maps. LC will acquire
the records from NIMA and create records for retrospective sheets.
Story is working with a Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC) committee
chaired by Paige Andrew of Penn State to create a Core Level format for
Dr. Charles B. Peterson, a cataloger at LC G&M, has donated his
collection of approximately 15,000 gasoline company maps to LC. The
Division has also acquired John Snyder’s collection concerning
projections and manuscript maps from the National Geographic Society. They
have also purchased 1:100,000 scale Soviet maps of the United States. The
Division is looking for funding to purchase Soviet maps covering Alaska and
Canada. In addition to the cooperative acquisitions program for foreign
maps that has existed for years, the Division is working with El Instituto
Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática
(INEGI) to acquire sets of Mexican maps at 1:50,000, 1:100,000 and larger
covering different subjects.
The 50th anniversary Summer Project will be held this summer with 6
participants. The Division has received 300,000 maps from NIMA. Jim
Flatness, the Division’s Acquisitions Officer had estimated that there
would be about a 60% duplication with the Division’s collections.
However, a sample of the maps has shown that the duplication rate is less.
IMAGERY AND MAPPING AGENCY (NIMA)
Lusby began his presentation by distinguishing between NIMA customers and
consumers of NIMA products. NIMA's customers are the National Defense and
Intelligence agencies who require cartographic information, products and
data produced by NIMA. They can also direct NIMA to produce certain
products or cover specific areas of the world. The civil and law
enforcement agencies, along with the general public, are the consumers. The
general public consumers may not be able to receive these products because
of national security issues or because of cooperative arrangements made
with organizations in other nations. The overall trend in NIMA has been a
move to digital products and services, with print products based on those
data being produced as needed.
emphasized the political difficulty of arranging release of sensitive data
produced for military or intelligence uses. In some cases, especially for
emergency or disaster-relief situations, it can be accomplished on a
limited basis. But it is sometimes less easy for educational and research
use. In some cases, users may be able to review data but not duplicate it
or receive a permanent copy.
no plan to take NIMA products entirely out of the FDLP. All publicly
available products, including digital products will be placed into the FDLP
within budget and cost constraints. Jim attempts to move products into that
program where he can and where costs allow it.
outlined many initiatives and cooperative projects with federal agencies
over the past year, including NASA, USGS, FEMA, and the Secret Service. He
also acknowledged the difficulty of determining public availability of
various NIMA products. A web site is being worked on that will attempt to
bring all of that information together in one location. No release date was
given. Jim then outlined the availability and schedule for various data
(Digital Orthorectified Imagery)
10-meter resolution imagery is now available for public download through
the NIMA Geospatial Engine (http://geoengine.nima.mil).
(Digital Terraine Elevation Data)
DTED-0 (30 arc second/1km resolution) is now available with worldwide
coverage through the NIMA Geospatial Engine; users may download about 50mb
worth of data at a time. DETD-1 (SRTM) (100 m resolution) will be available
for purchase through the EROS Data Center only for the areas in the United
States. The projected time frame of this release is Dec 01; Lusby is
working to make this data available through FDLP but there is no definite
plan for that. DTED-2 (SRTM) (30 meter resolution) will be available only for
the United States sometime early 2002 (see comments on SRTM below).
(Shuttle Radar Topography Mission)
The spring 2000 Space Shuttle mission took radar based elevation readings
at 30 meter resolution over the entire world. The data is still being
processed, with North America being the highest priority. Only United
States data will be made available to the public as DTED-2 (see above),
while the rest of the world will be restricted.
VMAP-0 is now available with worldwide coverage through the NIMA Geospatial
Engine; users may download about 50mb worth of data at a time. VMAP-0 is
also available in 4 CD set for the FDLP members. GPO can survey members and
provide NIMA with a quantity requirement. VMAP-1 is also available on a
case by case basis. Certain areas of the world along with the United States
are available for public purchase, and as such, available to the FDLP.
Again, GPO can survey members for interest.
closed by displaying a list of printed items that will be made available
through FDLP. Many of these were complete sets of 1:50,000 sheets for
southeast Asia; others were complete sets of 1:50,000, 1:100,000, and city
graphics at scales ranging from 1:12,500-1:25,000 for certain nations.
BUREAU, GEOGRAPHY DIVISION
began by giving us an overview of American Fact Finder (AFF) at the Census
web site (www.census.gov), which the agency is using to increase product
availability. He demonstrated the layout of the AFF introduction page,
which has general user information at the top; access to data from their
web site is from a link in the lower left. The Census Bureau is getting
more requests to download spatial data. Users can create thematic maps
online using AFF.
talked about some of the major changes in Census geography for the 2000
census (many of these changes were things of which we were previously
aware). For instance, Census is no longer using the term Block Numbering
Area (BNA), but is only using the term "census tract" for this level
of geography. There is no minimum population limit for Census Designated
Places (CDPs). Block numbers will consist of four digits with no alpha
suffix. The redistricting TIGER/Line 2000 files currently are available and
have an updated feature network. The Zip Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a
new level of geography for aggregating data, where each block is assigned
one and only one zip code, based on 2000 blocks. Tim asked for feedback on
these, especially with how water features are handled by them. The March 28,
2001, Federal Register had a notice regarding new urban and rural area
criteria; after public input, there will be a new list of urbanized areas
in early 2002. The Office of Management and Budget is working on new
Metropolitan Area definitions based on Census 2000 using the concept of
Core Based Statistical Areas; these new definitions will likely be used in
will continue to be the spatial data source for the Geography Division. In
the summer of 2001 they anticipate the latest version of the 2000
TIGER/Line files, which will include the ZCTA boundaries and updated
address ranges. These will be available online, on DVD, and on custom
available from Geography include paper maps, plotted on demand on 33 by
36-inch sheets, for five dollars per sheet through the customer services
branch at 301-457-1101. These are also available on the Internet and on CD
in Adobe Acrobat format. These include several layers needed for
redistricting purposes: county-based block maps (over 100,000 sheets),
voting district outline maps (23,354 sheets, sometimes including state
legislative districts), and census tract outline maps (6,514 sheets). One
full set of the maps was plotteded for the Library of Congress. Color is an
important component of these maps. You can Click "maps" at the
census web site to go to Geographic Products; this will lead to the
appropriate web page. An index map will let you determine which sheets you
need. These maps are also available in Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language
(HPGL), for output to plotters, but this is scheduled at present for
release only on DVD due to the large file sizes. Specifications for plotter
configurations are available at the web site. A CD-ROM with Acrobat files
will be in depositories this summer.
a table showing the historical changes in the U.S. center of population, as
well as a map depicting the change. These are online, along with a
description of the calculations used to determine this point. The 2000
center of population is in Phelps County, Missouri.
information available from the web site includes a map of the over 70
Census Information Centers (CICs). The American Community Survey is the
proposed replacement for the decennial census long form. If the ACS is
approved, the 2010 decennial form will likely be very short- maybe the size
of a postcard. At present, the ACS plan involves 250,000 households per
month within the survey. Finally, for geographic products, there are
relationships files that relate 1990 census geography to 2000 census
forthcoming products from census will be American Indian Tract Outline
maps, a Congressional district atlas for the 106th and 107th
Congresses, state-based county subdivision maps, state/county outline map,
and state/county metropolitan area outline maps. Other upcoming products
include digital cartographic boundary files, generalized from TIGER,
available in both low and high-resolution versions. A projected Census
Atlas in printed book form will include about 70 thematic maps. It will be
distributed through the depository program and will probably eventually be
available in Acrobat format.
welcomes feedback using the email address
ON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES
Roger L. Payne
Payne from the Board on Geographic Names (BGN) gave an enthusiastic
overview of its history, functions, and products. The Board was created in
1890 in response to the confusion caused by the variety of names given to
physical features in the United States by scientific expeditions. The
BGN’s mission is to standardize names, establish principles and
policies, and promulgate their decisions. It was established by law and its
decisions are legally binding to agencies of the Federal Government.
Although legal authority extends to all feature types, by its own decision,
the decisions only apply to physical features, not man-made features such
as roads, parks, schools, etc. The names established by the BGN cannot be
the following rules to make decisions: the names must be in the Romanized
alphabet, and used locally, or established by Congress or executive order
or other authorities (such as local governments). Of these, "local
use" takes priority. The names may be in any language. The BGN does
not approve names whimsically; much thought and research go into each
decision. The process begins with the submission of a new name to BGN via
their Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) (http://geonames.usgs.gov/)
website/database or by other means. After submission, if the name is
published elsewhere in "official" sources or established by
historical resources, and non-controversial, it will be added to GNIS
within 30 days. Cultural (man-made) features must be held for at least 30
days in order for a thorough review to take place. Natural features not
found in publications are given to state and local governments for a 45-day
exam period. Problematic or commemorative names take at least four months.
There is currently a moratorium on naming physical features in wilderness
areas, except for safety and education reasons.
the issues that BGN deals with include requests by or laws passed by
Congress, commemorative names, wilderness areas, and derogatory names. A
current controversy surrounds the name "squaw"; it is considered
by many to be a derogatory name for a female. Five state governments are
requiring that the word "squaw" appearing in a placename be
changed. They are taking the initiative, not BGN, but BGN is working in
cooperation with the state naming boards to make the changes official (Iowa
and Indiana lack such boards).
are rarely changed by the BGN. Exceptions do occur. Some of the reasons
names are changed include the addition of diacritic marks (as is happening
extensively in Hawai’i), the elimination of duplicates and variants,
and the shortening of lengthy ones.
is the only official list of names recognized by the BGN, and hence
the US Government. All updates and additions are made on this web site by
authorized personnel. The site receives 30 to 35,000 hits a day. Printed
versions were dropped in 1991. The CD-ROM version is still available, but
this text version will be replaced by a spatially enabled version in 2002.
Since the last edition, more than 350,000 entries have been added to the
database. The gazetteers can still be downloaded.
database was developed in several phases. During the first phase, the
Bureau melded all of the names found on US Geological Survey maps, National
Forest Service maps, National Oceanographic Survey charts, and National
Park Service maps. This yielded only 20% of the known names in the US.
Phase II began in 1982. It used data from all federal, local governments,
as well as historical and BGN "approved" documents. Most of Phase
II is complete; only Alaska, Kentucky, Michigan, and New York have yet to
be finished. The database now includes references to a name’s origin
if that name was the subject of a controversy since 1982. The names in GNIS
do not have to be current; in fact, the database includes over 100,000
entries of places that are no more. Phase III will begin in 5 years and
will be more in depth.
Agencies must use the names found in GNIS; they cannot make up new ones.
They may choose to leave out names. If the wrong name is used, there are
serious repercussions. The least may be embarrassment; the worst could lead
to problems with safety and accidents.
been incorporated into many government databases including "Gateway to
Earth" by USGS, Terraserver, the National Atlas, and Landview.
Landview 4 was last updated in July 2000, and contains approximately 90% of
the names found on GNIS.
1987, BGN has operated an electronic maintenance program. Recently, Florida
and Delaware have entered in an agreement to aid with this process by
keeping their respective names up to date, and more importantly, adding
delineated boundaries to each name. Ultimately, the latter will allow
people to spatially search GNIS. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey is
developing a new version of GNIS, and it is planned for release in October
2001. It is geographical enabled. The new version also includes the source
of the names, and the name of every map name at every scale that the place
PARK SERVICE (NPS)
indicated that there are many changes underway at the National Park
Service. Many parks have geographic information systems (GIS) in place, and
there are national coordinators in regional offices. The Park Service is
using digital line graphs (DLG) and GIS to generate their maps.
stated that Harpers Ferry Center is located in West Virginia and is an
interpretive service center for the entire park system. The center creates
publications, exhibits, wayside exhibits, and films. Waysides are "up
and coming" as a mapping unit in Harpers Ferry Center, creating maps
for outdoor exhibits.
Information Center is located in NPS's Denver Service Center and is the
library for internal drawings, plans and the like.
National Park Map and Guide (map of all units of the NPS) is revised and
current on the NPS website, ParkNet, at www.nps.gov. The web site
includes information on programs and projects. The web site also includes
entry to websites of affiliated units.
also mentioned another web site: http://www.recreation.gov. According to
the web site, "Recreation.Gov is a partnership among federal land
management agencies aimed at providing a single, easy-to-use web site with
information about all federal recreation areas. The site allows you to
search for recreation areas by state, by recreational activity, by agency,
or by map".
message project" is a recent initiative of the NPS. The goal of the
initiative is to bring all units together under a NPS arrowhead to create a
corporate identity. Another initiative has involved the individual parks
recreating maps (in-house) from existing visitor use map digital files and
reproducing them as stripped down versions in their park newspapers. An
example was a transportation "shuttle map" for Zion National
Park. Adobe is used to create the in-house maps.
examples provided were: Volunteers in Parks, the National Park System Map
and Guide, National Park Index, Civil War at a Glance, Hawai'i Volcanoes,
Grand Canyon, and a Revolutionary War at a Glance (for the 225th
anniversary), which is currently being printed.
derived products are printed through Park Associations, not the Government
Printing Office (GPO), and are not available through the depository
program. By law, the Parks have to provide park brochures.
digital visitor use maps are posted on a website (www.nps.gov/carto) which includes information on
data sources and accuracy. New maps are being made with digital line graphs
from USGS. Shaded relief maps are created using digital elevation models
(DEM) from USGS. An example of a shaded relief map is the national
parklands map of Alaska.
also works closely with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names and the various
State Boards on Geographic Names. The use of diacritical marks on maps by
the NPS are now included for the parks in Hawai'i.
RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE (NRCS)
Natural Resources Conservation Service presentation was given by Christine
Clarke, NRCS Geodata Coordinator. Formerly the Soil Conservation Service,
the NRCS's mission is to provide leadership in a partnership effort to help
people conserve, improve, and sustain our natural resources and
environment. They oversee conservation programs mandated in farm bills and
help put conservation practices on the ground. The Service has 10,000
employees in 2,400 field offices located in almost all counties in the
country, in addition to state, regional and national offices. They also
maintain a vast network of partners including conservation districts, state
and federal agencies, Earth Team volunteers, agricultural and environmental
groups and professional societies. These employees help farmers and
ranchers develop conservation plans suited to their local situation.
Service began digitizing soil surveys about 20 years ago. Today they
provide information at the state level through the State Soil Geographic
Database (STATSGO) and the county level through Soil Survey Geographic
(SSURGO) Data Base. Both are available on the web and designed for use in
geographic information systems. Online soil survey manuscripts, generally
PDF versions of the printed soil surveys, are available for some counties.
In addition they produce a CD with "soil explorer", a graphical
interface that allows easy map generation and the raw data files for the
more GIS proficient to assist their field operations. The Service is
developing an internet access tool allowing map generation on the web. This
product is called the Soil Data Viewer.
NRCS products include the National Resources Inventory (NRI) which is a
statistically based sample of 800,000 points surveyed at 5 year intervals
of land use and natural resource conditions and trends on U.S. nonfederal
lands. The National Soil Information System (NASIS) is the core component
of the National Cooperative Soil Survey's vision of providing a dynamic
resource of soils information for a wide range of needs and is designed to
manage and maintain soil data from collection to dissemination. The PLANTS
Database is a single source of standardized information about plants. The
National Water and Climate Center provides water and climate information
and technology which support natural resource conservation. Many of these
products have data available for download and can be found from the NRCS
web site at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/.
Service is concerned with both data access and archiving. They are a node
on the FGDC National Geospatial Data Clearinghouse and develop metadata for
their datasets. They are actively archiving soils data, the traditional focus
of the NRCS. Other datasets generated on an as-need local basis are not as
actively archived or centralized for national use and applications.
AND WILDLIFE SERVICE (F&WS)
introduced himself as the Chief Cartographer, F&WS. He noted that he
had been a F&WS cartographer in Alaska before accepting the job as
Chief Cartographer in D.C. one year ago.
presentation focused on the maps of the National Wildlife Refuges through
the years. He began the discussion with a brief history of U.S. Wildlife
Refuges. The first was established in 1903 and for a number of years, the
maps of Wildlife Refuges were made by the General Land Office. The Fish and
Wildlife Service became a unit of the Department of Interior in 1940. Until
recently, most maps of Wildlife Refuges were in black and white.
of wildlife refuges at F&WS has been revolutionized with the
introduction of GIS. Among other advantages, this has increased the
accuracy of boundaries and land ownership data. Examples of the different
types of maps produced through the years were shown. These maps are
becoming more valuable as a source of information and to document changes
in land ownership and refuge boundaries. A question was raised concerning
the distribution of wildlife refuge maps to library depositories. This
issue will be investigated.